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Friday, June 1, 2018

A Brief History of computer and Networks

History of computer and Networks


Webster's Dictionary Defines "computer" as any programmable electronic device that can store, retrieve, and process data. The basic idea of computing develops in the 1200's when a moslem cleric proposes solving problems with a series of written procedures.

As early as the 1640's mechanical calculators are manufactured for sale. Records exits of earlier machines, but Blaise Pascal invents the first commercial calculators, A hand powered adding machines. Although attempts to multiply mechanically were made by Gottfried Liebnitz in the 1670s the first true multiplying calculator appears Germany shortly before the American Revolution.

In 1801 a Freshman, Joseph-Marie Jacquards builds a loom that weaves by reading punched holes stored on small sheets of hardwood. These plates Are then inserted into the loom which reads (retrieves) the pattern and  creates (process) the weave. Powered by  water, this "machine" came 140 years before the development of the modern computer.

Shortly after the first mass-produced calculator (1820), Charles Babbage Begins his life long quest for a programmable machine. Although Babbage was a poor communicator and record-keeper, his difference engine is sufficiently developed by 1842 that Ada Lovelace uses to it mechanically translate a short written work. She is generally regarded as the first programmer. Twelve years later George Boole, while professor of mathematics at cork University, writes An Investigation of the laws of  Thought (1854), and is generally recognized as the father of computer science.

The 1890 census is tabulated on punch card similar to the once used 90 years earlier to create weaves. Developed by Herman Hollerith of MIT, The System uses electric power (non-mechanical). The Hollerith tabulating company is as forerunner of Today's IBM.

Just prior to the introduction of Hollerith's machine the first printing calculator is introduced. In 1892 Williams Burroughs, A sickly ex-teller, Introduces a commercially successful printing calculator. Although hand-powered, Burroughs quickly introduces an electronic model.

In 1925, unaware of the work of Charles Babbage, Vannevar Bush of MIT builds A machine he calls the differential analyzer. using a set of gears and shafts, much like Babbage, the machine can handle simple calculus problems, but  accuracy is a problem.   

The period from 1935 through 1952 gets murky with claims and counterclaims of who invents what and when. part of the problem lies in the international situation that makes much of the research secrets. Other Problems include poor records-keeping, deception and lack of definition.

In 1935, Konrad Zuse, a German construction engineer, builds a mechanical calculator to handle the math involved in her profession. Shortly after completion, Zuse starts on a programmable electronic device which he completes in 1938.

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